Although boards and management have tight relationships, their functions and responsibilities are distinct. The contrasts between a board and governance can be gleaned from their respective definitions.
"A board is an organized group of individuals with the capacity to collectively oversee and foster an institution that is typically handled by a qualified executive and staff.
Governance refers to the act, practise, or capacity of governing."
In a basic view, the board makes the decisions and management implements them. Due to the litigious nature of our society, boards are taking a greater interest in day-to-day management activities as a result of the influence on their fiduciary duties. Boards must be informed of how the organisation is managed in order to maintain its legal responsibilities, but board members should not assume management tasks. The following are some of the fundamental duties of boards and management:
Boards of Directors Responsibilities
The Board Chair leads the board in accordance with the vision, mission, and strategic planning objectives of the organisation. Board responsibilities include:
· Selecting the CEO
· Approving significant policies
· Making crucial choices
· Monitoring performance
· Providing external advocacy
Essential Duties of Board of Management
The CEO guides the firm in accordance with the directives of the board. The management responsibilities include:
· Operational decision making
· Developing operational strategies
· Keeping the board informed and knowledgeable
· Providing the board with well-documented suggestions and information
Benchmarks for Determining Board Duties
Even when taking into account the fundamental notion that boards make choices while management executes plans, the complexity of the modern business environment frequently muddies the waters. Boards work most effectively when they focus on future-oriented, high-level issues; yet, there are instances when they must get more directly involved. In order to fulfil their responsibilities to shareholders and other stakeholders, the board must probe deeper into management issues when it observes unfavourable performance. The following indicators will help boards determine when a situation necessitates action:
Boards should play a larger role in significant topics. This refers to matters that may have a detrimental influence on the organisation or have significant financial stakes. This does not imply that the board should engage in direct management issues. It implies that people must be knowledgeable about topics in order to make good decisions.
Boards should prioritize long-term objectives. They accomplish this by predicting the organization's appearance five years from now. Board engagement should be limited to quality, growth, finances, and people. Future objectives should be evaluated through initiatives and key indicators.
Relevance to the Objective
Board members should consider an issue's relevance to the organization's mission when selecting their level of involvement. This implies that the board is responsible for determining and directing whether operations align with the organization's objective.
Strategic Policy Determinations
Boards should make high-level policy decisions, whereas management should make low-level management policy decisions. This implies that boards make significant choices, such as whether to close or open facilities, and make substantial purchases in accordance with the organization's long-term strategic plans. In addition, it requires resolving legal issues and board behaviour, as well as conflicts of interest, community benefit, executive compensation, and CEO assessment. Management should provide the board with all pertinent facts so they may make educated choices on significant topics. Management should incorporate thoroughly documented analysis and suggestions.
Boards should routinely analyze performance reports to identify favourable or unfavourable trends and growth benchmarks. Before evaluating if an issue warrants board attention, boards should analyse trends from at least three consecutive reporting periods.
Boards may be required to take fast action in response to unethical or illegal conduct. They may also need to intervene if there is a significant decline in performance.
Before taking direct action, boards should speak with management to determine how they are addressing the issues and whether they are able to reverse the negative trend. Without explicitly micromanaging individual matters, boards should keep management accountable for results.
Concerning Legal and Media Matters
Management is responsible for informing boards about significant issues, especially if they have been contacted by Congress, the IRS, or the media. The board of directors should ensure that the organisation has a public relations plan. The board should oversee the administration of public and media communications, particularly when significant or public issues develop.
Assisting the CEO
When boards and management have a solid and transparent working relationship, the organisation benefits significantly. Boards should assist the chief executive officer in carrying out board decisions, such as awarding or terminating contracts. Occasionally, the CEO may need to request intervention or help from the board. CEOs may require board intervention with management in order to improve performance. Boards may also assist CEOs by utilising their community connections to support the organization's mission.
Boards that habitually interfere with the roles and responsibilities of management risk upsetting a framework intended to benefit both parties. CEOs and other management need to know that boards have faith in their ability to handle adverse situations. Boards that assume management responsibilities run the danger of CEO and executive vacancies. The interaction between boards and management was built purposefully for the organization's high-efficiency success. The CEO and other managers are responsible for the day-to-day management tasks, while the board focuses on mission-focused activities. When each entity focuses on its own obligations and duties, the framework functions like clockwork.