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Everything you need to know about ESG

What exactly is ESG?

ESG is also known as environmental, social, and governance (ESG) reporting and sustainable development reporting. It may also cover human rights, diversity and inclusion, and philanthropy, which is a programme of philanthropic giving.

ESG reporting is a method for firms to convey their efforts on corporate social responsibility and sustainability in order to demonstrate social accountability. ESG has gained popularity among investors who consider it as a sign of the production of long-term financial value, particularly because it can decrease costs, offer opportunities for innovation, and more.

Is ESG reporting required?

ESG reporting is only required in places (such as the United Kingdom) where it is a legal necessity. Under the UK Corporate Governance Code, for instance, all businesses with more than 250 workers are required to publish their annual financial statements using one or more GRI-approved frameworks or codes of practice.

In some nations, however, such as South Africa, ESG reporting is voluntary and not mandated by law. That doesn't mean that corporations don't report, but reporting guidelines and obligations may vary each organization. Each continent and location has its unique regulations regarding what, if anything, is required to be reported.

In the United States, for instance, firms are not compelled to report on ESG performance, but they may do so under the US Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) when those standards are developed and implemented.

ESG reporting is not legally required in Canada, although there are numerous industry-specific rules that businesses can follow. It enables them to meet the expectations of their customers or investors, so enhancing the sustainability of their firm.

Current ESG Reporting Frameworks in 2022

The realm of ESG reporting is, to say the least, intricate. According to Ernst & Young, there are approximately 600 ESG guidelines and standards worldwide. Some are exclusive to particular sectors or nations. Others are relevant to a variety of operations, but have yet to gain widespread acceptance.

In the past year, the United States government has taken concrete moves toward introducing ESG-specific regulation modifications. In the past, ESG reporting was voluntary; however, due to these legislative changes, certain industries will be obliged to disclose in the future, while others will continue to do so to satisfy the needs of customers and investors.

What constitutes an ESG Framework?

An ESG framework is a method for detecting, evaluating, and integrating the economic, environmental, and social consequences of a company on society and the environment. It can be used for establishing objectives, determining policies, and executing strategies, among other things! In certain instances, ESG frameworks can identify risks that can have a negative impact on a sector or perhaps many industries. Some dangers may be exclusive to a company, whereas others may be industry-wide. And writing a sustainability report using a framework is the first step in measuring your company's sustainability.

ESG frameworks enable businesses and investors to assess progress at a high level and track major business-impacting issues. It can provide intelligence to inform decision-making, which is particularly beneficial for businesses committed to sustainability.

What advantages does using an ESG framework provide?

The organisation can utilise this information to discover chances for continual improvement in order to create a long-term sustainable business, which is one of the benefits of utilising an ESG framework. It enables businesses to concentrate on their strengths and capitalise on new trends.

What are instances of the advantages?

Identifying hazards, enhancing performance management systems, constructing assets, adding value to products or services, promoting sustainable business practises, and managing a sustainable business are a few examples.

What are some problems associated with employing an ESG framework?

The amount of skill necessary to implement an ESG framework, the availability of data commensurate with management's expectations, and the identification of critical metrics may be obstacles for businesses. Thus it is extremely imperative for leadership team to have updated thorough understanding of ESG frameworks.

What does an ESG framework consist of?

The framework determines an organization's success in terms of its economic, environmental, and social performance through a set of questions or criteria. ESG provides a framework to ensure that organisations consider these concerns when making significant (International Financial Reporting Standards) decisions and can be used as a performance measurement tool.

A framework is a collection of constructs used to analyse anything. Numerous frameworks have been developed, however they can be divided into two categories: social sciences and natural sciences. In the social sciences, frameworks are frequently derived from ideas or concepts to explain particular actions. This is because the study of social science requires an individual perspective. More emphasis is placed on data collecting tactics and experimental design in natural science frameworks. Consequently, what is an ESG Framework? It is a complicated strategy for examining investments that assists investors in understanding environmental, social, and governance-related issues inside the corporate activities of corporations.

What are Sustainability Reporting Frameworks?

The ability to give meaningful statistics that can be compared to the figures of other companies within an industry or investment portfolio is one of the most important aspects of ESG reporting. Comparing apples to apples, however, requires beginning from the same tree, or in this case, the same ESG reporting methodology.

These guidelines standardize reporting. Without them, firms can cherry-pick the measures that portray them in the best light, and investors are unable to determine whether organisations are making progress toward reaching their sustainability goals and reducing their negative impact on the environment and community.

The phrases ESG reporting standards and ESG reporting frameworks are frequently used interchangeably, and this is not always a concern if ESG reporting remains voluntary. But where specific compliance requirements must be met, it is crucial that enterprises understand which ESG reporting formats and organisations are approved and applicable to their operations.

What is the most effective ESG framework?

There are numerous frameworks and organisations to monitor, including industry-specific organisations such as The Dow Jones Sustainability Group (DJSI) or CDP. There are also regionally-specific reporting frameworks, such as the Global Alliance for Banking on Values in North America. What matters is that you select an ESG framework and reporting structure (if any) that works effectively for your organisation and fits within your budget, because reporting or assessing performance is useless if no one is reviewing or analysing the data!

ESG is utilised by investors to improve their investment selections

What are the Various Available ESG Reporting Frameworks?

Keeping up to current with ESG reporting formats can often feel like chasing a changing target. While there may be hundreds of frameworks to choose from, reporting organisations are merging and developing strategic partnerships so that reportable data can be standardised as an increasing number of corporations implement ESG programmes.

Occasionally, however, it can be difficult to stay up. Only within the past few years have important frameworks and organisations consolidated. The SASB and IIRC formed the VRF, which announced in November 2021 that it had merged with the CDSB to form the ISSB. The IFRS Foundation, home of the ISSB, and GRI established a cooperation to harmonise their frameworks on March 24, 2022. Even though we're only halfway through the first quarter of 2022, that alphabet soup is rapidly transforming into a hearty stew.

The sections below provide an overview of some of the available ESG reporting frameworks. They are intended to help you comprehend how these frameworks are normally organised and which sectors they apply to. However, prior to constructing an ESG programme, you should seek out the most recent relevant news and frameworks.

How many ESG reporting structures exist?

There are numerous criteria and frameworks that can be used to evaluate an organization's ESG performance. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has compiled a list of over 160 reporting projects; however, many companies employ multiple reporting standards concurrently since they provide somewhat different information.

Some companies, for instance, may disclose their performance based on the GRI Sustainability Reporting Standards for their narratives, but the United Nations Global Compact Principles for their financial statements.

Global Initiative for Reporting (GRI)

The GRI framework is likely the most widely recognised ESG reporting standard. Existing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programmes may have been constructed in accordance with GRI's specifications. In fact, 73% of the 250 largest corporations in the world use GRI for their ESG reporting.

In fact, the GRI standard incorporates three sets of standards. These include:

Universal - A collection of three reporting criteria applicable to all organisations. The universal standards encompass the fundamentals of the organization's operations.

These are separated into three series based on subject matter: 200 (economic subjects), 300 (environmental topics), and 400. (Social topics).

Sector Standards - Priority Group 1 (basic materials and necessities), Priority Group 2 (industrial), Priority Group 3 (transportation, infrastructure, and tourism), and Priority Group 4 (other substantial impact areas) (other services and light manufacturing)

Board for International Sustainability Standards (ISSB)

As indicated previously, the ISSB is the newest ESG reporting framework, however, it is essentially a merger of the Value Reporting Foundation (VRF) and the Climate Disclosure Standards Boards. The ISSB was founded to primarily address the informational needs of financial markets on sustainability.

The IFRS Foundation, a leader in worldwide accounting disclosure systems, manages the ISSB. The creation of the ISSB and its new cooperation with GRI will assist in harmonising ESG reporting with already accepted standards for financial reporting, providing investors with the confidence to make risk-based decisions based on transparently presented sustainability data.


CDP, formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project, is a global non-profit organisation that manages disclosure systems for investors, businesses, cities, and states. In contrast to other ESG reporting frameworks, CDP focuses particularly on environmental sustainability, with reporting organizations giving information about climate change, forests, and water security.

The CDP published a quality-reviewed GHG-modelled decision-making utilized emissions data set in 2015, which has been widely utilised for investment decision making and carbon risk assessment.

Additionally, CDP provides an annual sustainability score based on the comprehensiveness of firm reporting and their level of action from year to year. Investors will utilise CDP's annual A-List to establish investment priorities and choose sustainable partners.

Science Based Objectives (SBTi)

The objective of SBTi is to reduce carbon emissions in the private sector. In addition to assisting businesses in quantifying their carbon emissions, the initiative delivers science-based strategies for lowering emissions and achieving net-zero goals by 2050.

Global Sustainability Benchmark for Real Estate (GRESB)

GRESB is an investor-led group that strives to supply the business sector with validated ESG data. In order to assist their member investors in making educated decisions, they gather, validate, score, and benchmark ESG data from particular companies.

A significant portion of GRESB's statistics focuses on the real estate industry, with annual benchmarks reported in:

Real Estate Development

Funds for Infrastructure Assets

Climate-Related Financial Disclosures Task Force (TCFD)

The Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) is an industry-led body established in 2015 by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) to develop climate-related financial disclosures.

The TCFD provides suggestions for disclosure across four critical areas, including governance, strategy, risk management, and metrics and targets. It also gives reporting best practices.

This helps companies articulate how climate-related challenges are hurting their financial performance – and will effect it in the future. In addition, it assists investors in recognizing climate-related risks and making more educated investment decisions.

What is ESG reporting in financial statements?

Some investors utilize ESG to improve their investment decisions when it comes to financial reporting. They either divest from all non-supportive corporations or invest in companies that perform well in a certain area, such as carbon emissions reduction. In the future, they may also consider the effect of sustainable legal systems on shareholder value.

In fact, there is a dispute within the financial sector as to whether organizations such as G4 and Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) should play a larger role. Many investors acknowledge that ESG reporting is an integral element of a company's operations since it not only gives superior environmental, social, and governance information, but also helps to establish long-term objectives and strategies.

How are ESG reports generated?

In business, the term ESG is relatively new, but the underlying concepts are not. For decades, it has taken various forms in various countries and civilizations. Some firms may employ the same reporting methodology, but their internal approaches to social responsibility may vary greatly. Others may have a global framework that all of their subsidiaries or firms adhere to. There are also businesses that report performance based on one framework but implement plans based on a different one.

ESG reporting is a means for businesses to demonstrate how they're integrating sustainability into their management practices, and it's an integral element of the business cycle – not an afterthought!

Which ESG framework am I to employ?

It is crucial that, when picking an ESG framework for your firm, you find one that fits your needs and has high reporting criteria. There are other ESG frameworks to choose from, including the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the Public Reporting Initiative (PRI), and ISO 26000:2010.

What should a report on ESG include?

The first step is to choose if the framework should emphasise the environment, society, or governance. PRI takes a more holistic approach to all three concerns, whereas G4 focuses primarily on environmental and social factors.

Next, you must determine whether the framework is suitable for your company's size - large or little. If it is too particular, it may not work for everyone in your organisation; therefore, you should examine alternative solutions. It is also essential to comprehend the reporting requirements and how they operate in order to adhere to them effectively. Thus at least some executives in top management should be ESG certified.

Examine the data offered by the framework and determine whether or not it is truly pertinent. Depending on your sector, you may find that you may not need certain pieces of information, while other areas demand greater detail.

In the end, you should have a framework that is simple to comprehend, straightforward to implement, and compatible with your organization's goals.

What is environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure regulation?

ESG disclosure rule is a statute that outlines reporting obligations for ESG performance. It is not legally binding (yet), but it can be used as a guide if other legislation, such as the Corporate Governance Code, are applied in your nation.

Who regulates ESG?

ESG is governed by a number of commercial and public organisations. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) was established by the United Nations to promote consistency in how corporations report on ESG performance, whereas the PRI is a collaboration between investors and businesses that assists them in implementing sustainable initiatives. In Canada, industry organisations such as B-Lab (benefit corporation) and the Canadian Association of Accredited Mortgage Professionals enforce reporting requirements. The US Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) establishes and develops industry-specific sustainability standards in the United States.

What is the SASB acronym?

SASB refers to the US Sustainability Accounting Criteria Board, which establishes reporting standards for ESG performance. Companies like Coca-Cola, for instance, report ESG data based on the SASB framework to guarantee their social, environmental, and governance activities are visible.

Several years ago, SASB recognised three primary areas of investor interest: environment, social, and governance (ESG). These major regions were then separated into eleven industries

What is the SASB's structure?

The SASB framework is a reporting standard for ESG performance. It breaks down the three pillars of sustainable development into 42 indicators based on financial data so that businesses can more effectively integrate sustainability into their daily operations. SASB is an excellent reference point for other regulation in North America, despite the fact that it is not enforceable by law, because investors utilise it to manage their assets.

For instance, investors are more willing to invest in companies that voluntarily report ESG performance using SASB, as they will have a better understanding of how the company is operating based on its financial data. In reality, SASB is collaborating with Canadian and American regulators to make reporting required for public corporations.

What is the MSCI USA ESG index?

MSCI, which stands for Morgan Stanley Capital International, is among the most prominent sources of ESG data. It has produced a number of indices used by investment firms around the world to gauge companies' ESG performance.

MSCI USA ESG is an index comprised of New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASDAQ equities, in addition to American Depository Receipts (ADRs). It provides a rules-based, objective method for tracking US large and mid-cap corporations with high ESG criteria.

How do excellent ESG practises benefit businesses?

ESG strategies can benefit your firm by enhancing its image and brand reputation; obtaining a competitive edge; enhancing its ability to attract and retain personnel, clients, or consumers; and fostering stronger connections with stakeholders and partners.

In addition, sustainable business practises can help companies reduce their operational costs by: reducing waste and resource consumption; saving time through green strategies that optimise processes; supporting a strong innovation culture that helps businesses stay abreast of market trends; and encouraging direct dialogue with stakeholders, particularly employees.

How to Begin Using Reporting Frameworks

The optimal time to begin developing an ESG reporting programme is now, when many industries' obligations are still voluntary. Your organisation can take its time determining how to assemble the essential information, complete the quantifications, and accurately disclose your statistics to corporate leadership, shareholders, investors, and the community in a way that is meaningful and verifiable.

However, keeping up with the ever-changing framework landscape may be a full-time job in and of itself. Understanding which frameworks apply to your business, what to do when your framework merges with others, and how to effectively report on the development of your ESG programme requires considerable time. Corporations should painstakingly include ESG experts and trickle down the knowledge to middle management strategically.

Therefore corporations required certified ESG experts and ESG analysts to meet the ever changing dynamic ESG regulations and ensure that it is in sync with correct frameworks.

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